Nitric Acid

NITRIC ACID:

Commercially available HNO3 is an azeotrpe mixture with water. Mostly found in 68.0%. Nitric Acid is considered as strong acid.

CONTENTS:

63.0 %  m/m   to   70.0 %  m/m

Concentrated HNO3 is clear, colorless or almost colorless liquid, miscible with water

Having Density   =  1.384 g/cm3  to 1.416 g/cm3

A 10 g/L solution is strongly acid and give the reaction of nitrates

CHEMICAL STRUCTURE: 

Nitric Acid
Structure of Nitric Acid.

APPEARANCE:

Nitric acid is clear and not more intensely colored than reference solution

BOILING POINT:

120.5°C at 1 atm pressure

CHLORIDES:

Maximum 0.5ppm when 5 gram in 10 ml of water and 0.3 ml of silver nitrate and allowed to stand for 2 minutes protected from light any opalesense is not more intense than that of a standard prepared in the same manner using 13 ml of water, 0.5 ml of nitric acid, 0.5 ml of chloride solution and 0.3 ml of silver nitrate solution.

SILFATES:

maximum 2.0ppm

Evaporate 10.0 grams to dryness with 0.2 gram of sodium carbonate. Dissolve the Residue in 15 ml of distilled water. Prepare the standard using a mixture of 2 ml of sulphate standard solution and 13 ml of distilled water

ARSENIC:

Maximum 0.02ppm

Gently heat 50 grams with 0.5 ml of sulfuric acid until white fumes begin to evolve. To the Residue add 1 ml of a 100 g/L solution of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and dilute to 2 ml with water. Prepare the standard using 1.0 ml of arsenic standard solution

IRON:

Maximum 1.0 ppm

Dissolve the Residue from the determination of sulphated ash in 1 ml of dilute hydrochloric acid and dilute 250 ml with water and dilute 5ml of this solution to 10 ml with water

HEAVY METALS:

Maximum 2.0 ppm

Dilute 10 ml of the solution prepared for the limit test for iron to 20 ml with water. 12 ml of the solution complies with the test. Prepare the reference solution using Lead standard solution

SULFATED ASH:

Maximum 0.001%

Evaporate 100.0 grams to dryness moisten the residue with a few drops of sulfuric acid and heat to dull red.

ASSAY:

To 1.50 grams add about 50 ml of water and titrate with 1M Sodium Hydroxide using 0.1 ml of methyl red solution as indicator

1 ml of 1M Sodium Hydroxide solution is equivalent to 63.0mg of HNO3.

NITRIC ACID DILUTE:

(in dilute from it contains about 125g/L of HNO3)

Dilute 20 gram of HNO3 to 100 ml with distilled water

NITRIC ACID DILUTE R1:

Dilute 40 gram of HNO3 to 100 ml with water.

NITRIC ACID DILUTE R2:

Dilute 30 gram of HNO3 to 100 ml with water.

NITRIC ACID FUMING:

Fuming HNO3 contains 98.0% of HNO3 .It is clear, slightly yellowish liquid fuming on contact with air. Having density about 1.5 g/cm3. This grade is often used in explosive industry.

ANHYDROUS HNO3:

Anhydrous HNO3 contains 99.9% of HNO3. It contains maximum 2.0% of water and 0.5% of dissolved NO2. It is also known as White fuming nitric acid, pure nitric acid

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  1. Amoxicillin Hydrate        2.  Testing of Vitamin C in Drug

Testing of Vitamin “C” in a drug

Here is the titration method for testing of Vitamin “C “in a supplement drug. It becomes more difficult to test Vitamin “C” in drug having Other vitamins like Vitamin “A “, Vitamin “E ” Vitamin B”, extracts like Ginkobiloba or Gensing and minerals like Zinc, or Seinite etc. So here is easy method to test the Vit. “C” in that drug.

PROCEEDURE: 

In the test , 1,2-diphenol-indophenol and metaphosphoric-acetic acid are used. first of all we are going to prepare both of these.

PREPARATION OF 1,2-diphenol-indophenol

Weigh 25mg of 1,2-diphenol-indolphenol in 100ml volumetric flask. add 25 ml of water and mix the weighed quantity. Now weigh 50mg of Sodium by carbonate and add in the mixture. add more 25ml of water and dissolve the reagents by continuous stirring by any mechanical means or  electromagnetic source.  and in last make the volume upto the marks using water.

PREPARATION OF Metaphosphoric Acetic-Acid

In a 100ml volumetric flask, Add 3ml of conc. phosphoric acid and 8ml of glacial acetic acid and makeup the volume upto the mark using distilled water. 

ASSAY OF VITAMIN “C”

Weigh accurately the product equivalent to 100mg of Vitamin C in 200ml volumetric flask. add 70ml of metaphosphoric acetic-acid in flask and sonicate for 30 minutes. Then makeup the volume upto the mark using distilled water. Mix the solution for 5 minutes and filter through whattman filter paper. or centrifuge some solution. take 4ml of the solution in a 100ml conical flask and add 5ml of metaphosphoric acetic acid. Now titrate with 1,2-diphenol-indophenol until rose pink color . 

each ml of 1,2-diphenol-indophenol used is equivalent to 0.136mg of Vit.C.

 

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Disodium Edetate ( EDTA )

DISODIUM EDETATE: (EDTA)

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is the aminopolycarboxylic acid. It is the disodium salt form of edetate, a polyvalent chelating agent with anti-hypercalcemic and anti-arrhythmic properties. Edetate, a heavy metal chelating agent, forms soluble stable complexes which are readily excreted by the kidneys, thereby can be used to lower serum calcium concentrations. Disodium edetate is used as a chelating agent in a wide range of pharmaceutical preparations, including mouthwashes, ophthalmic preparations, and topical preparation, typically at concentrations between 0.005 and 0.1 % w/v. Disodium edentate is also used as a water softener as it will chelate calcium and magnesium ions present in hard water.

IUPAC NAME OF EDTA:

disodium;2-[2-[carboxylatomethyl(carboxymethyl)amino]ethyl-(carboxymethyl)amino]acetate

OTHER NAME:

Disodium Edetate, EDTA disodium salt, 139-33-3, Titriplex III, Edta disodium, Disodium EDTA, Disodium salt of EDTA, Chelest B, Komplexon III, Clewat N, Disodium edathamil, Disodium edta, anhydrous, Zonon D, Dotite 2NA, Selekton B2, Tetracemate disodium, Cheladrate, Mavacid ED4, Versonol 120, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt, Chelest 200, Disodium versene, Endrate disodium, Sodium versenate, Metaquest B, Kiresuto B, Veresene disodium salt, Chelaplex III, Complexon III, Diso-Tate, Chelaton III, Versene NA, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, disodium salt,Triplex III, Chelaton 3

CHEMICAL FORMULA:

C10H14N2Na2O8

MOLECULAR WEIGHT:

336.21 g/mol

CHEMICAL STRUCTURE:

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE:

It is white crystalline powder, having melting point 240°C and boiling point 252°C.

SOLUBILITY AND pH:

It is soluble in water having pH 5.3

MANUFACTURING PROCESS:

All of the industrially used methods of manufacture of Disodium Edetate and its salts involve the addition of formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide or an alkali metal cyanide to an aqueous solution of Disodium Edetate. The salts, or edetates, are then formed by hydrolysis. Disodium Edetate can also be formed by heating tetrahydroxyethylethylenediamine with sodium or potassium hydroxide using a cadmium oxide catalyst. Disodium EDTA was prepared by dissolving Disodium Edetate into a hot solution that contained two equivalents of sodium hydroxide. The solution was then allowed to crystallize.

HOW TO PREPARE 0.1M DISODIUM EDETATE (EDTA) :

Dissolve 37.5g of Sodium Edetate in 500ml water. Add 100ml of 1M Sodium Hydroxide and mix. Now dilute the solution to 1000ml with water.

HOW TO STANDARDIZE 0.1M DISODIUM EDETATE(EDTA):

Dissolve 0.120g of Zinc in 4ml of Hydrochloric acid. Add dilute sodium hydroxide solution until the solution is weakly acid. Now carry out the assay of zinc by complexometry. 1ml of 0.1M Disodium Edetate is equal to 6.538mg if Zinc.

HOW TO PREPARE 0.05M DISODIUM EDETATE(EDTA):

Dissolve 18.6g of Disodium Edetate in sufficient water to produce 1000ml.

HOW TO PREPARE 0.02M DISODIUM EDETATE(EDTA):

Dissolve 7.444g of Disodium Edetate in sufficient water to produce 1000ml.

HOW TO PREPARE 0.01M DISODIUM EDETATE:

Dissolve 3.722g of Disodium Edetate in sufficient water to produce 1000ml.