Disodium Edetate ( EDTA )

DISODIUM EDETATE: (EDTA) Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is the aminopolycarboxylic acid. It is the disodium salt form of edetate, a polyvalent chelating agent with anti-hypercalcemic and anti-arrhythmic properties. Edetate, a heavy metal chelating agent, forms soluble stable complexes which are readily excreted by the kidneys, thereby can be used to lower serum calcium concentrations. Disodium edetate … Read more

StrongAcid-Strong Base Titration

       The purpose of a strong acid-strong base titration is to determine the concentration of the acidic solution by titrating it with a basic solution of known concentration, or vice-versa, until neutralization occurs. As both the acid and base are strong (high values of Ka and Kb), they will both fully dissociate, which means all the … Read more

Mohr’s Method of Precipitation Titration

MOHR’S METHOD OF DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES BY TITRATION WITH SILVER NITRATE is one of the oldest titration methods still in use – it was researched and published by Karl Friedrich Mohr in 1856.The idea behind this titration is very simple – chlorides are titrated with the silver nitrate solution in the presence of chromate anions. … Read more

Accuracy and Precision

Accuracy In analytical chemistry, the term ‘accuracy’ is used in relation to a chemical measurement. The International Vocabulary of Basic and General Terms in Metrology (VIM) defines accuracy of measurement as… “closeness of the agreement between the result of a measurement and a true value.” The VIM reminds us that accuracy is a “qualitative concept” … Read more

Methods of Minimizing Errors

Minimizing Systematic Error Systematic error can be difficult to identify and correct. Given a particular experimental procedure and setup, it doesn’t matter how many times you repeat and average your measurements; the error remains unchanged. No statistical analysis of the data set will eliminate a systematic error, or even alert you to its presence. Systematic … Read more

Pharmaceutical error and their types

Pharmaceutical Errors Pharmaceutical mistakes cause more than one million serious injuries or deaths in the United States each year. Pharmaceutical errors are generally preventable, and they can result in a type of medical malpractice lawsuit. A pharmaceutical error can happen at any point in the prescription process from the time the medication is picked to … Read more

Alcohol Number Determination

Alcohol Number Determination represents the number of milliliters of ethanol at 15°C obtained from 10mL of tincture or other preparations containing ethanol by the following Methods. A: Method 1 (Distilling method) This is a method to determine the Alcohol Number by reading the number of milliliters of ethanol distillate at 15°C obtained from 10 mL … Read more

Factors of Raw Material (Active)

Here is the list of factors for some raw material in B.P and U.S.P. By using these factors you can remove unwanted chemical groups from active and effective one. According to your label claim and raw material. I explain, let one has Lincomycin HCl and label claim for drug is only lincomycin then one should … Read more

Gentamicin Sulfate

Gentamicin Sulfate

ABOUT: Gentamicin Sulfate is the sulfate of a mixture of aminoglycoside substances having antibacterial activity produced by the growth of Micromonospora purpurea or Micromonospora echinospora. PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: Gentamicin Sulfate occurs as a white to light yellowish white powder. It is highly hygroscopic. CHEMICAL FORMULA: C21H43N5O7. xH2SO4 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE: MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 477.60 IUPAC NAME: (6R)-2-Amino-2,3,4,6-tetradeoxy-6-methylamino-6-methyl-α-D-erythrohexopyranosyl-(1→4)-[3-deoxy-4-C-methyl-3-methylamino-β-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)]-2-deoxy-Dstreptamine sulfate … Read more

Diclofenac Sodium

Diclofenac Sodium

DESCRIPTION: Diclofenac Sodium is white or slightly yellowish, slightly hygroscopic, crystalline powder. CHEMICAL FORMULA: C14H10Cl2NNaO2 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE: MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 318.1 Dalton USE AS: Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor; analgesic; anti-inflammatory. IUPAC NAME: Sodium [2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino]phenyl]acetate. CONTENTS: It contains not less than 99.0% and not more than 101.0% of C14H10Cl2NNaO2. SOLUBILITY: Sparingly soluble in water. Freely soluble in Methanol. Soluble … Read more

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